Sanskrit Translation Services
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Native Speaking Sanskrit Translators
Verbatim Solutions Sanskrit translation teams are professional linguists performing translation from English to Sanskrit and Sanskrit to English for a variety of documents in various industries including:
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The word Sanskrit means completed, refined, perfected. Sam (together) + krtam (created). Virtually every Sanskrit student in India learns the traditional story that Sanskrit was created and then refined over many generations (traditionally more than a thousand years) until it was considered complete and perfect. Sanskrit is considered a more refined linguistic strain of the Prakrit (Prototype. Pra (prime, first, pre-) + krt (created)) languages of India which include the lower vernaculars such as Pali and Ardhamagadhi.
The language underwent several stages of consolidation and modification.
In its older Vedic form, it is a close descendant of Proto-Indo-European, the root of all later Indo-European languages. Vedic Sanskrit is also practically identical to Avestan, the language of Zoroastrianism. After the consolidation of its grammar and lexicon it turned into a classical language of strict esthetic rules and gave rise to considerable literature of drama, medicine, politics, astronomy, mathematics, alchemy, etc.
Its common origin with modern European and the classical languages of Greek and Latin can be seen, for instance, in the Sanskrit words for mother, matr, and father, pitr. European scholarship in Sanskrit, initiated by Heinrich Roth and Johann Ernest Hanxleden, led to the discovery of this language family by Sir William Jones, and thus played an important role in the development of linguistics. Indeed, linguistics (along with phonology, etc.) was first developed by Indian grammarians who were attempting to catalog and codify Sanskrit’s rules. Modern linguistics, which arose much later in the rest of the world, owes a great deal to the grammarians, including key terms for compound analysis.
Sanskrit is the oldest member of Indo-Aryan sub-branch of Indo-Iranian. Vedic Sanskrit and Avestan are the oldest members of the Indo-Iranian sub-branch of the Indo-European family. Nuristani languages, spoken in roughly what has become Afghanistan, are grouped with Vedic and Avestan.
The oldest form of Sanskrit is Vedic, in which the Vedas, the earliest Sanskrit texts, were composed. The earliest of the Vedas, the R gveda, was composed in the middle of the second millennium BC. The Vedic form survived until the middle of the first millennium BC. Around this time, as Sanskrit made the transition from a first language to a second language of religion and learning, the Classical period began. The intense study of the structure of Sanskrit at this time led to the beginnings of linguistics.
Vernacular Sanskrit may also have developed into the Prakrits (in which, among other things, early Buddhist texts are written) and the modern Indic languages. There has also been much reciprocal influence between Sanskrit and the Dravidian languages.
Sanskrit has had no uniform script and still does not have one among its users, though the syllabic Devanagari(meaning “as used in the city of the Gods”) script is nowadays being popularized. traditionally it is written the script that is prevalent in that region. For example, Kannada speaking people use the Kannada script, Telugus use Telugu scipt etc. Grantha script was used by the Tamils, though it has fell into disuse recently.
Sanskrit today is generally written in the syllabic Devanagari (meaning “as used in the city of the Gods”) script composed of 51 letters or aksharas. Several Latin-alphabet transliterations of varying utility are also available. Sanskrit was earlier written in the Grantha script, in which occasional modern Sanskrit texts are still written. Earlier than that, the Brahmi script was used, for instance by Ashoka for his pillar inscriptions Writing was introduced relatively late to India, and did not immediately become important since oral learning was the primary means of transmission of knowledge. Rhys Davids suggests that writing may have been introduced from the middle east by traders, but Sanskrit, which was used exclusively in sacred contexts, remained a purely oral language until well into the classical age of India. It is, however, interesting to note the importance that Sanskrit orthography and Vedic philosophies of sound plays in Hindu symbolism, as the varnamala, or sound-garland/alphabet, of 51 letters is also seen to be represented by the 51 skulls of Kali. In the Upanishads, the transcendent-immanent nature of Brahman is represented by the half-matra, or sphota of sound that is inherent to a beat of sound in the Sanskrit system, as one cannot conceptualize it but realizes it is the inherent base of all else.
Modern day India
Sanskrit’s greatest influence, presumably, is that it exerted on languages that grew from its vocabulary and grammatical base. Especially among elite circles in India, Sanskrit is prized as a storehouse of scripture and the language of prayers in Hinduism. While vernacular prayer is common, Sanskrit mantras are recited by millions of Hindus and most temple functions are conducted entirely in Sanskrit, often Vedic in form. Most higher forms of Indian vernacular languages like Bengali, Gujarati, and Hindi, often called ‘suddha’ (pure, higher) are much more heavily Sanskrit zed. Of modern day Indian languages, while Hindi tends to be, in spoken form, more heavily weighted with Arabic and Persian influence, Bengali and Marathi still retain a largely Sanskrit vocabulary base. The two national songs, Jana Gana Mana (anthem) and Vande Mataram are both higher forms of Bengali, so Sanskritized as to be archaic in modern usages. But as a medium of instruction for Hindus in India, Sanskrit is still prized and widespread within the educated echelons of society.
The Sanskrit vocabulary, had some influence on the Chinese culture because Buddhism arrived in China largely in the form of texts composed in Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit, which was actually an ornamented Prakrit. Many Chinese Buddhist scriptures were written with Chinese transliterations of Sanskrit words. Some Chinese proverbs use Buddhist terms that originate from Sanskrit.
Sanskrit words are found in many other present-day non-Indian languages. For instance, the Thai language contains many loan words from Sanskrit, and ranged as far as the Philippines viz. Tagalog ‘guru’, or ‘teacher’, with the Hindu seafarers who traded there.